Fri, 12/05/2023 | 15:00 PM
Geographical indication protection "Gia Lai" for coffee products
On November 10, 2022, the National Office of Intellectual Property issued Decision No. 5372/QD-SHTT on the grant of a Geographical Indication Registration Certificate No. 00125 "Gia Lai" for coffee products. The Department of Science and Technology of Gia Lai province is the organization managing this GI.
Gia Lai coffee growing area was formed in the early years of the 20th century thanks to the ideal conditions for coffee to grow such as altitude, climate, and soil... The reputation of Gia Lai mountain town coffee is increasingly affirmed thanks to its characteristic natural flavor that spreads and attracts people to enjoy.
Gia Lai coffee products are diverse, including green coffee and processed products such as roasted coffee beans and ground coffee.
Figure 1. Gia Lai green coffee
Figure 2. Gia Lai roasted coffee beans
Figure 3. Gia Lai powdered coffee
Gia Lai green coffee has uniform seeds, a light and long-lasting aroma (like a fresh peanut smell), greasy, slightly fatty, not bitter, sweet aftertaste; Grain length (mm): 8.05 - 9.41; Grain width (mm): 5.77 - 6.62; Rate of defective particles (%): 1.28 - 1.89; Humidity (%): 5.57 - 11.94; Caffeine content (%): 1.98 - 2.60.
Gia Lai roasted coffee beans have a bright, wet brown color, strong aroma, strong spread, and long-lasting fragrance; Seed length (mm): 9.87 - 11.85; Grain width (mm): 6.84 - 7.82; Rate of defective particles (%): 2.50 - 5.00; Humidity (%): 0.95 - 2.10; Caffeine content (%): 2.00 - 2.56; Crude protein content (%): 8.45 - 10.15.
Gia Lai powdered coffee has a fine powder state, spongy, reddish brown, dark brown color extracted from cockroach wings, strong aroma spreading, long-lasting scent, rich bitter taste, slightly acrid, long sweet aftertaste in the throat; Humidity (%): 0.87 - 2.23; Caffeine content (%): 2.02 - 2.57; Crude protein content (%): 8.46 - 10.15.
The geographical area with unique natural conditions is the key factor that gives Gia Lai coffee products their special properties and quality. The thickness of the soil layer in the Gia Lai coffee area is greater than 70 cm, decisive to the reconstruction of a flat terrain surface with a low slope from 0-8O, which plays an important role in preventing erosion and leaching substances. nutrients in the soil is a good condition to develop roots that absorb water and nutrients in the soil to feed plants, creating green coffee beans with a uniform, defect-free state. The clay grain content in the soil accounts for a large proportion (42.55 - 61.57%) and the CEC absorption capacity in the soil has an average value (11.83-14.03 LDL/100g of soil) is a Factor affecting the moisture content of Gia Lai coffee beans. In addition, the average value of CEC in soil (11.83-14.03 lđl/100g) also affects the caffeine content of coffee beans. The total content of macro-elements: Nitrogen (0.18-0.23%), Phosphorus (0.15-0.24%), and Potassium (0.03-0.15%) in the soil are at good levels, these are the factors that determine the crude protein content of coffee.
This geographical area has ideal climatic conditions such as stable temperature, specifically the monthly average temperature not higher than 26oC and not less than 20oC, no northeast monsoon, and no hoarfrost, favorable for coffee plants to grow and bear fruit. Gia Lai coffee enters the stage of fruit formation and accumulation of dry matter, carbohydrates, and essential oils from April to September, the temperature ranges from 22.3-24.8oC, and the temperature range of day and night ranges from 5- 10oC. At this stage, the temperature is the decisive factor for the quality of the strong and long-lasting aroma, and characteristic bitter taste, slightly acrid, long sweet aftertaste in the throat of Gia Lai coffee.
The total rainfall in the geographical area is large (2,000 – 2,400 mm/year). However, the geographical area has a dry period of 5 months from early November to early April next year with low total rainfall (150-200 mm). In January and February, there is almost no rain here, during this period coffee trees blossom, pollinate, and form fruit; the flowers will wither and fall off when there is a lot of rain, leading to limited pollination, low fruit set rate, small fruit, high defect rate, so yield is reduced. Flowering ends at the end of March and the beginning of April, at this time, the fruit rapidly increases in volume and dry weight and needs enough water for the plant to absorb water, which helps the seed chambers develop to the maximum. This period falls around May and June, at that time, the Gia Lai coffee area had regular rain, Rainfall increases in the months of June, August, and August with a total rainfall of 1,700mm and gradually decreases in September, ending in October with a total rainfall of (500mm). This is a decisive factor in the size of Gia Lai coffee beans.
Air humidity is a decisive factor in the crude protein and caffeine content of Gia Lai coffee. From the beginning of October to the end of December, the level of humidity drops sharply to only about 72-76%. At this time, the coffee is ripe, it needs a low humidity environment to reduce the activity of growth hormones to convert the active substances of carbohydrates, proteins, and caffeine in the coffee beans to the state of accumulation of dry matter.
The coffee variety grown in the geographical area is the Robusta.
In addition to the peculiarities of natural conditions, the characteristics of the methods of cultivation, preliminary processing, processing and preservation of indigenous people in the geographical area are also decisive factors for the quality of Gia Lai coffee.
Gia Lai coffee is fertilized with rotting manure, using raw materials such as dry grass, bean stalks, etc., as a base for plants; annually collect plant residues such as small branches, leaves, and coffee pods in the plot, then it is buried at the base of the tree to improve soil properties and provide enough nutrients for coffee to grow during the flowering, fruiting, and ripening periods.
To get firm, uniform coffee beans, the standard moisture content is over 12.94%, and cultivation areas harvest in the dry season, with low air humidity (from October to mid-December at the latest). The coffee cherries are uniform in size and ripeness due to being hand-harvested and done in 3 stages (stage 1, a harvest at the beginning of the crop; stage 2, a harvest of the main season; stage 3, a harvest of the remaining ripe fruits). It should be noted that young green fruit should not be harvested, and branches must not be plucked and not broken. It is necessary to stop harvesting before and after flowering for 3-5 days. After harvesting, coffee cherries must be processed within 24 hours. Coffee cherries are dried for about 12 to 15 days in the sun. Turn the coffee beans 4 times a day, when the beans are hard, put them in a bag to rest for 2-3 months.
The geographical area includes: Nhon Hoa town and the communes of Ia Hrú, Ia Rong, Ia Dreng, Ia Hla, Ia Blù, Ia Le, Ia Phang in Chu Puh district; Chu Se town and the communes of Bar Maih, Ia Tiem, Chu Pong, Bo Ngoong, Ia Glai, Al Ba, Dun, Kong Htok, Ia Hlop, Ia Pal, Ia Blang, Ia Ko, H Bong of Chu Se district; Chu Prong town and the communes of Ia Bang, Bau Can, Binh Giao, Thang Hung, Ia Phin, Ia Drang, Ia Bang, Ia Kly, Ia Tor, Ia Me, Ia Puch, Ia Ve, Ia Pia, Ia Boong, Ia O belongs to Chu Prong district; Chu Ty town and the communes of Ia Dok, Ia Din, Ia Kla, Ia Dom, Ia Pnon, Ia Nan, Ia Krel, Ia Krieng, Ia Lang of Duc Co district; Ia Kha town and the communes of Ia Khai, Ia Yok, Ia Ba, Ia Grang, Ia Hrung, Ia Der, Ia Krai, Ia O, Ia Pech, Ia To, Ia Chia, Ia Sao of Ia Grai district; wards Yen The, Dong Da, Thong Nhat, Hoa Lu, Thang Loi, Phu Dong, Ia Kring, Hoi Phu, Tra Ba, Chi Lang and the communes of Tan Son, Bien Ho, Tra Da, Chu A, An Phu, Dien Phu, Ia Kenh, Gao in Pleiku city; Ia Ly town, Phu Hoa town and Ia Phi, Ia Khuong, Dak To Ver, Ia Kreng, Ia Mo Nong, Hoa Phu, Ia Ka, Chu Dang Ya, Ia Nhin, Nghia Hung and Nghia Hoa communes of Chu district Pah; Dak Doa town and the communes of Hai Yang, Ha Bau, Hneng, Nam Yang, K Dang, Tan Binh, A Dok, Glar, H'Nol, Ia Bang, Ia Pet, Trang, Dak Somei, Dak Krong, Kon Gang in Dak Doa district; Kon Duong town and the communes of Ayun, Dak Jo Ta, H'Ra, Dak Djrang, Dak Ya, Dak Taley, Lo Pang, Kon Thup, Kon Chieng, De Ar, Dak Troi of Mang Yang district; KBang town, Son Lang, K Rong, So Pai, Dak Smar, Lo Ku, Nghia An, Dong, Dak Rong, Kon Pne communes of Kbang district, Gia Lai province.
Center for Examining Geographical Indication and International Trademark
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